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Glossary

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AAR (Association of American Railroads)

The central coordinating and research agency of the American railway industry. This agency deals with matters of common concern in the whole field of railroading from operations to public relations.


Accessorial Charges

Charges for a wide variety of services and privileges that are made available in connection with the transportation of goods. Includes all charges other than freight charges.


Back Haul

Traffic for the return movement of a car or container towards the point where the initial load originated or to handle a shipment in the direction of the light flow of traffic.


Bad Order

A freight car loaded improperly, mechanically defective, or has safety violations.


Beneficial Owner

The actual owner of the lading that is being shipped. The IMC negotiates transportation services and rates on behalf of the beneficial owner.


Bill of Lading

A shipping form which is both a receipt for property and a contract for delivery of goods by a carrier. The principal bills of lading are: Straight A non-negotiable document. Surrender of the original is not required upon delivery of the freight unless necessary to identify consignee. Order A negotiable document. Surrender of the original property endorsed is required by transportation lines upon delivery of the freight, in accordance with its terms. Clean Either a Straight or Order Bill of Lading in which the transportation company acknowledges receipt of the property without noting any exceptions as to shortage or damage to the property received. Exchange A bill of lading which is given in exchange for another. Export One given to cover a shipment consigned to some foreign country. Government A special form of bill of lading which is used in making shipments for the account of the United States Government.


Block

A group of railcars destined to the same location.


Blocking or Bracing

Wood or metal or other approved supports to keep shipments in place in or on railcars, containers and trailers.


Bobtail

Motor Carrier slang indicating a non-revenue movement without a trailer or container attached.


Bogie

A frame with wheels on which a container is mounted for street or highway transport. Commonly referred to as a chassis.


Bonded Warehouse

A warehouse owned by persons approved by the Treasury Department, an under bond or guarantee for the strict observance of the revenue laws; utilized for storing goods until duties are paid or goods are otherwise properly released.


Bridge Move

A railroad movement involving at least three roadhaul carriers at which the IP is neither the first or last carrier.


Broker

An individual who acts as an agent for a customer, who is attempting to route a car to a customer in Mexico or Canada. Equipment destined to a locale in Mexico is billed only to the border. At that time a broker, in cooperation with a broker in Mexico, prepares the proper paperwork which allows the car to cross the border and proceed to its destination.

Bulk cargo

Large quantities of undivided or unpackaged cargo, such as grain or dry powder.

Car Location Message (CLM)

That part of the fleet system which deals with providing the fleet operator with information on car movement data for all cars in the fleet (see fleet). This information comes in the form of a periodic (usually daily, sometimes hourly) message or report which contains the latest movement data on all cars from the fleets that are on our lines. This message follows an industry wide standard format that enables shippers who use railroads across the US and Canada to use this information for updating their own computer systems.


Cartage

Pick up or delivery of freight within commercial zone of a city by local carrier acting as agent for a shipper or over-the-rail carrier.


Chassis

A rubber-tired trailer under-frame on which a container is mounted for street or highway transport.


Circus Ramp

Stationary or portable end loading/unloading ramp which requires a truck tractor to drive a trailer onto or off of rail flatcars.


Clearance

The limiting dimensions of a rail shipment that would allow/prevent its clearing of tunnels and bridges.


COFC (container on flat car)

The movement of a container on a railroad flat car. This movement is made without the container being mounted on a chassis.


Connecting Carrier

A carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or forming a connecting link between two or more carriers.


Consignee

The individual or organization to which freight is shipped. Freight is shipped by the consignor to the consignee.


Consignor

The individual or organization shipping freight to a consignee.


Container

A receptacle that resembles a truck trailer without wheel (chassis) that is lifted onto flat cars. Containers are designed for all modes of intermodal transport. Most containers are 20, 45, 48 or 53 feet in length.


Container Yard

A yard used for storage of containers when not in use. Container yards can be railroad or privately owned.


Conventional Car

A single platform flat car designed to carry a trailer or container. Containers can only be single stacked on a conventional car. Conventional cars are equipped with one or two sanctions, depending on length, for shipment of one or two trailers.


Crane

A large machine that straddles the railroad track for the purpose of loading and loading containers and trailers to and from railcars.


Cross-Town

When a drayman or railroad delivers a container or trailer from one railroad to another for continuance of the move.


Cut-Off Time

The time a container or trailer must be ingated at the terminal to meet a scheduled train loading for departure.


Dead Head

When a drayage firm is required to move empty equipment a long distance to pick up a load.


Dedicated Train

A train that by design transports a dedicated commodity or type of cars. In the case of intermodal, intermodal trains only carry trailers and/or containers.


Detention

A charge made on trailers/containers held by or for a consignor/consignee for loading or unloading, forwarding directions, or any other purpose.


Diversion

A change made in the route of a shipment in transit.


Division

The amount of revenue apportioned to each rail carrier participating in a given route, where the customer is invoiced on a through-rate basis.


Door-to-Door

A movement of lading from the customers' front door (dock) to the receivers' front door (dock).


Door-to-Ramp

A movement of lading from the customers front door (dock) to the destination intermodal ramp closest to the receiver.


Double-Stack

The movement of containers on articulated rail cars which enable the one container to be stacked on another container for better ride quality and car utilization.


Driver Assist

When a drayman is required to assist in the loading/unloading of a container or trailer.


Drop & Pull

Drayman drops loaded or unloaded unit at shipper or receiver and hooks up to unit which was previously dropped and returns it to the ramp.


Dry Run

When a drayman goes to a ramp to pick up a container and for some reason leaves without one.


Dunnage

The material used to protect or support freight in containers or trailers.

 


Embargo

To resist or prohibit the acceptance and handling of freight. An embargo may be caused by acts of God such as tornadoes, floods, inclement weather, congestion, etc.


En Route

In transit to destination.


FAK

Freight of All Kinds


Flat Car

A freight car having a floor without any housing or body above. Frequently used to carry containers and/or trailers or oversized/odd-shaped commodities. The three types of flat cars used in intermodal are conventional, spine and stack cars.


Flip

When a container is picked up off of the ground and mounted on a chassis for street or highway transport.


Flip Charges

Charges assessed to a shipper when the railroad is required to provide an unnecessary or extra flip. An example of this is when a private container is grounded off of a train and no chassis is available at that time. A flip charge is assessed because a flip is required at a time after the train is unloaded.


Foreign Equipment

Any car not belonging to the particular railway on which it is running.


Free Time

The period allowed the owner to accept delivery before storage or detention charges begin to accrue.


Freight Bill

Statements containing commodity and payment information.


Freight Forwarder

One who assembles small shipments into one large shipment which is then tendered to a regulated over the road carrier. Upon reaching destination, the shipment is separated into small shipments and delivered.


Gate

A point at an intermodal terminal where a clerk checks in and out all containers and trailer. All reservations and paperwork are checked at the gatehouse.


Gatehouse

A structure at the gate where a clerk inspects and clears the entrance and exit of all containers and trailers.


Gateway

A point through which freight commonly moves from one territory or carrier to another.


Haulage

A legal agreement between two rail partners. The owner of the agreement is referred to as the 'Haulage Rights Carrier'. The other partner is referred to as the 'Haulage Movement Carrier'. With this agreement, the 'rights carrier' requests the 'movement carrier' to move equipment over an agreed segment of track, but to outside parties it appears as if the 'rights carrier' is doing the work.


Hazardous Material (Haz Mat)

Substance or combination thereof which, because of its quantity, concentration, physical or chemical characteristics, may cause or significantly pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when improperly packaged, stored, transported, or otherwise managed.


Headhaul

Rail or truck term used to define the highest revenue generating shipping lane from shipper to receiver.


ICC

Interstate Commerce Commission, a federal regulatory agency that governed over the rules and regulations of the railroading industry. The ICC Termination Act of 1995 ended this regulatory agency. Most responsibilities were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.


Inbond

When lading clears customs at the ultimate destination instead of at the border.


Ingate

The process of checking a container or trailer into the intermodal facility. The ingate process includes inspection of the unit, reservation confirmation, the input of data into Union Pacific's computer system and the filling out of the J-1.


Interchange

The exchange of railcars between connecting railroads.


Interchange Agreement

Agreement between a railroad and a drayage company that allows a specific drayage company to drop off or pick up railroad or private intermodal equipment at the said railroad's facilities. Also known as an Equipment Interchange Agreement.


lnterline Freight

Freight moving from point of origin to destination over two or more transportation lines.


lntermodal

Transport of freight by two or modes of transportation. Examples are: ship-rail, rail-truck.


Intermodal Terminal

A railroad facility designed for the loading and unloading of containers and trailers to and from flat cars for movement on the railroad and subsequent movement on the street or highway.


Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC)

IMCs purchase rail and truck transportation services, utilize equipment from multiple sources, and provide other value-added services under a single freight bill to the ultimate shipper.


Intermodal Association of North America (IANA)

An industry trade association representing the combined interests of intermodal freight transportation companies.


IPI (Interior Point Intermodal)

Imported traffic movement from an origin port to an inland point on an ocean bill of lading.


J-1

A report filled out during the ingate and outgate process. The J-1 details damage to the unit, container information, shipping information, drayman involved and time of ingate/outgate.


Lading

That which constitutes a load. The freight in or on a railcar, container or trailer.


Landbridge

Containerized marine traffic that is routed via rail across the United States on traffic between the Far East and Europe/Canada in lieu of all water routes.


Landing Gear

Moveable metal legs on the front of a semi-trailer which support the trailer when not connected to a tractor.


Lift

The process of moving a container or trailer to and or from a rail car.


Live Load

When a drayman stays with a container or trailer while being loaded or unloaded.


Load Shift

The term when the contents of a container or trailer are shifted inside the unit sometime after it leaves the actual origin and before it arrives at the final destination.


Local Move

A railroad movement in which only one road haul carrier participates. The one carrier serves both the origin and destination station.


LTL (Less Than Truckload)

A shipment that would not by itself fill the truck to capacity by weight or volume.


Lumper

A person hired to help unload a container or trailer instead of using the driver.


Maintenance of Way

The process of maintaining roadbed (rail, ties, ballast, bridges etc.) These materials are hauled in special maintenance of way cars, which also include cars that are equipped with heavy equipment, such as cranes and tie replacing machines.

Manifest

A document that describes the contents of a shipment in greater detail than a bill of lading. Commonly used as a checklist during unloading.


Mini-Landbridge

Imported traffic movement from an origin port to a destination port on an ocean bill of lading via land transportation.


Notify Party

The party that is notified at the time a container or trailer is grounded from a train. Most notify parties are draymen.


Ocean Bill of Lading

Receipt and contract of carriage with a steamship company movement of goods between ports.


OTR (Over the Road)

Refers to movement of a truck over the road instead of an intermodal movement.


Outgate

The process of checking a container or trailer out of an intermodal facility. The outgate process includes inspection of the unit, input of data into Union Pacific's computer system and the filling out of the J-1.


OutReach Program

A rail-truck or truck-rail movement in which Union Pacific has combined the rail and drayage into a single transportation package for EMP and SPDU containers. Containers are shipped via rail from one terminal to another. After that, a contracted drayage firm drays the container to the paper ramp operators lot for customer pickup. The process also works reverse as well; shipment can originate with the truck movement and then move to the rail portion of the movement. Also referred to as the OutReach Program.


Overhead Shipment

A railroad movement involving at least three railroad carriers at which UP is neither the first nor the last carrier.


Packer

A moveable piece of heavy machinery used to lift rail containers or trailers on/off railroad flatcars at an intermodal facility. Also known as a piggybacker.


Packing List

A detailed specification as to goods packed into a container or trailer.


Pad

An area within a parking lot or intermodal terminal designated for a particular type of container or trailer, such as loaded outbound.


Pallet

A wooden, paper or plastic platform usually with a top and bottom, on which packaged goods are placed to facilitate movement by some type of freight handling equipment.


Paper Ramp

A rail-truck or truck-rail movement in which Union Pacific has combined the rail and drayage into a single transportation package for EMP and SPDU containers. Containers are shipped via rail from one terminal to another. After that, a contracted drayage firm drays the container to the paper ramp operators lot for customer pickup. The process also works reverse as well; shipment can originate with the truck movement and then move to the rail portion of the movement. Also referred to as the OutReach Program.


Per Diem

Charge based on a fixed rate per day which a carrier makes against another carrier or customer for use of its containers or trailers.


Pickup Number

A secure number provided to parties listed on the waybill. It allows only those parties to receive a container in order to outgate from our ramp facilities.


Piggyback

Transportation of a highway trailer on a railroad flat car.


Pigs

A railroad term for trailers loaded on flat cars.


Placard

A sign affixed to a rail car or truck, which indicates the hazardous designation of the product being transported in that vehicle.


Pool

An assigned group of containers, trailers or cars used to satisfy the transportation requirements of a customer.


Port Charge

A charge for services rendered at ports.


Port Mark

A term used in foreign shipping which denotes final destination--not the port of entry unless such port is the final destination.


Port of Entry

A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country. Ports of entry are officially designated by the government.


Premium Service

Highest level of service available on the railroad.


Private Equipment

Equipment whose ownership is vested in a person or company that is not engaged in the service of common carriage.


Proportional Price

Price from or to an intermediate point. Rate is to be used in combination with another carrier's proportional rate to make an interline rate.


Pup

A 28' trailer, used mostly in less than truckload business.


Ramp

Slang word for an intermodal terminal. Ramps were originally structures, permanent or temporary, from which trailers or machinery are driven onto or off of a railroad flatcar.


Ramp-to-Door

A movement of lading from the intermodal ramp closest to the customer to the receivers from door (dock).


Ramp-to-Ramp

A movement of lading from the intermodal ramp closest to the customer to the closest intermodal ramp to the receiver.


RCAF (Rail Cost Adjustment Factor)

An index published quarterly by the AAR showing the average change in railroad costs.

Receiver

Consignee, importer, or buyer (who may or may not be the same) named in the bill of lading as the party responsible for receiving a shipment.


Reconsignment

1. Any change, other than a change in route, made in a consignment before the arrival of goods at their billed destination.
2. Any change made in a consignment after the arrival of goods at their billed destination. When the change is accomplished under conditions which make it subject to the reconsignment rules and charges of the carrier.


Revenue Empty

Movement of an empty container or trailer that generates revenue for the railroad. Done for repositioning purposes.


Reverse Route

The exact reverse of the route a loaded car traveled from its destination, including all carriers and junctions involved.


REZ-1

An independent agent that handles all reservations and billing functions for EMP customers with a centralized system to manage assets through the internet. REZ-1 also handles UP trailer reservations for selected points.


Rubber Wheel Interchange

Containers or trailers that are interchanged between two railroads by means of drayage.


Rule 11

A railroad accounting term which refers to a customer shipping their freight "pre-paid" to an intermediate point and "collect" beyond that intermediate point to the final destination.


Run-Through

A train which originates on a different railroad that it terminates and does not get reclassified at interchange but rather "runs-through" to a point on the second railroad before the train is broken up.

 


SCQ (Specific Commodity Quote)

A private contract issued to Union Pacific Intermodal customers that lists rates for specific origin and destination pairs. Also includes restrictions and provisions for the application of those rates.


Seal

A device for fastening or locking the doors of a railcar, container or trailer. This is done for security and integrity of the shipment.

Shipper

A consignor, exporter, or seller (who may or may not be the same) named in the bill of lading as the party responsible for initiating a shipment.


Slack

The elongation which occurs between railcar couplers because of their spring-loaded design.


Slot Utilization

The method of utilizing every space available on a double stack car. A slot includes the space above a container when another container can be double-stacked. A five platform double stack car has 10 slots available for loading. If all 10 slots are loaded, you have 100% slot utilization.


Spine Car

A light weight articulated car that is an assembled in permanent consists of three or five platforms. Spine cars carry containers or trailers in single stack configuration.


Stack Car

An intermodal flat car that was specifically designed to place one container on top of another better utilization and economics. Also referred to as a well car because the cars are depressed in the center to allow clearance of the double stacked containers when moving under low-lying structures.


Stanchion

The hitches used to support the nose end of trailers when they are mounted on a flat car. There are two types of stanchions: collapsible and fixed.


STCC (Standard Transportation Commodity Codes)

The STCC system is a 7 digit coding structure designed to classify all commodities or articles which move or may move in freight transportation.


Steel Wheel Interchange

Containers or trailers that are interchanged between two railroads while on the railroad flatcar.


Storage Charge

A charge assigned to the shipper or consignee for holding containers or trailers at an intermodal terminal beyond the free time allotted to them.


Street Time

The time a container or trailer is away from the possession of the railroad.


System Equipment

Equipment owned or leased by a railroad. Each railroad considers their own equipment as system equipment.

 


Tare Weight

a) The weight of a container and the material used for packing.
b) As applied to a car/trailer, the weight of the car/trailer exclusive of its contents.


Tariff

A legal listing of rates used when moving regulated traffic by rail.

Terminal

A dock or hub where freight originates, terminates, or is handled in the transportation process; or a location where motor carriers maintain operating facilities.


Through Rate

A rate applicable from origin to destination over two or more rail carriers.


TOFC (trailer on flat car)

A rail trailer or container mounted on a chassis that is transported on a rail car. Also known as piggyback.


Trailer

A rectangular shaped box with permanent wheels attached for the transport of goods on rail, highway or a combination of both.


Transload

To physically transfer product from one transportation vehicle to another.


UMLER (Universal Machine Language Equipment Register)

A computer readable file of vital statistics for each railroad car in service. It applies to all railroads, types of cars, and data processing machines.


Van Grounding

The event when a container or trailer is taken off of the train and placed on the ground for customer pickup. At this time, the container is mounted on a chassis and the notify party is notified.


Van Notify

The event when the notify party is notified by the railroad that the container or trailer is available for pickup.


Vessel's Manifest

Statement of vessel's cargo, revenue, consignee, etc.


Waybill

A document covering a shipment and showing the forwarding and receiving station, the names of consignor and consignee, the car initials and number, the routing, the description and weight of the commodity, instructions for special services, the rate, total charges, advances and waybill reference for previous services and the amount prepaid.


Well Car

An intermodal flat car that was specifically designed to place one container on top of another better utilization and economics. Referred to as a well car because the cars are depressed in the center to allow clearance of the double stacked containers when moving under low-lying structures.

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